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English: Literature, Rhetoric, and Composition: Primary Sources
Typically, when we speak of primary sources in literature we mean either the literary work under study (Virgina Woolf's a Room of One's Own) or personal information produced by the author herself (Virginia Woolf's letters, diaries, manuscripts, and archival papers).
What is a Primary Source?
Primary Sources - original, first-hand observations or accounts of events or experiments. May include speeches, interviews, diaries, newspaper articles, photographs, video, and archival materials.
Secondary Sources - most often interpretations or analyses of primary source information. Mostly in the form of books, journal articles, and reference materials.
The disctinction between primary and secondary sources is not solely based on book vs. article format. A book of interviews would be a primary source about that person; a book of scholarly criticism of that person's work would be a secondary source. For more information, see our library guide on Primary Sources.
Always try a Google search for "author name and archive". However, the bulk of physical, paper archives cannot be found that way. There are several specialized search systems to locate papers across the U.S. and Canada.
WorldCat's freely searchable collection of archival records. Will not get you to the full text, but will instead tell you where a particular author's papers are scattered, or particular manuscripts are held. Uncovers the existence of archives that are hard to find other ways.
A database of archives collections available through the BPL. Will not get you to the full text, but will instead tell you where a particular author's papers are scattered, or particular manuscripts are held. Uncovers the existence of archives that are hard to find other ways.
London Times from 1785 to 1985 not including the Sunday edition. Wide history of 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with applicability in literary, women's, and postcolonial studies. Find reviews of authors' works as published during their lifetime.
Rare documents from libraries and archives around the world, from the late 15th century to the mid-20th, plus thematic essays written by scholars in the field of Empire Studies. Covers literature and culture, women's rights, slavery, bureaucracy, politics postcolonial studies and more.
One of the largest collections of digitized page images from American magazines and journals, covering colonial days to early 20th century. This includes titles like Benjamin Franklin's General Magazine and America's first scientific journal, Medical Repository; popular magazines like Vanity Fair and Ladies' Home Journal; regional and niche publications; and groundbreaking journals like The Dial, Puck, and McClure's.
Rich primary source database with over 150,000 pages of diaries and letters from 1,325 women. Keyword-searchable and with some pre-selected sub-collections of primary sources arranged around important historical events. Also includes author biographies an
Nearly one million images including art, architecture, photography, and humanities, with tools to save and present images. Has illuminated manuscripts, book illustrations, author photos; find things like Blake's etchings, Plath's photo, Shakespearean theatre sets.
Primary source archival materials like letters, papers, photographs, scrapbooks, financial records, and diaries. NU Libraries' subscription includes: Immigration Records from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Papers, Women's Rights Collections with documents from organizations like the Women's Party and League of Women Voters.
Collections include: Immigration Records from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Papers, Women's Rights Collections with documents from organizations like the Women's Party and League of Women Voters. From the ProQuest University Publications of America (UPA) Collection.
Citations to education information, including scholarly articles, professional literature, education dissertations, and books, plus grey literature such as curriculum guides, conference proceedings, government publications, and white papers.
Covers 1966 to the present.
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education.
Author Archives on the Web
This is only a selection; locate additional resources by searching for your author's name plus words like archives, letters or digital library.
Rich page scans of Blake's illuminated books, commercial illustrations, drawings, etchings, and manuscripts. Also biography, resources for further research, and electronic edition of his Complete Poetry and Prose. From Lib of Congress and UNC-Chapel Hill.
Extremely rich archive of her publications and letters, including first and critical editions of her work, several academic journals, biography, multimedia, and resources for further study. From the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Scholarly critical edition of Emily Dickinson's correspondence, including correspondence of family members, responses to her work by other artists, and additional critical resources, some rare and out-of-print.
From U. of Iowa Libraries, which "possesses the most complete Leigh Hunt collection in the world", a browsable and searchable database of over 1,600 of his letters to other luminaries of the time like Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and Thomas Carlyle.
All of Milton's poetry in English, Italian, Latin, and Greek, and selections of his prose; almost all fully annotated, most with introductions. Continuing project with goal of annotated versions of all Milton's work. Supported by Dartmouth College.
Digital versions of as much of Whitman's work as possible, including notebooks, manuscript fragments, essays, letters, journalistic articles, and the multiple editions of Leaves of Grass. Supported by University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Includes historic U.S. Newspapers, links to international collections, photographs, early sound recordings, manuscripts, and former American Memory collections. Of course, very strong in U.S. history, but also with holdings from various historical eras in other countries.
Make sure to use the yellow log-in button and select Northeastern. Millions of digitized titles from around the world, covering the 15th to 21st centuries. A Google Books for academic libraries, with a good amount of full-text access for public domain items.
International in scope, one of the largest directories of which newspapers have been digitized. Some may be paid access only -- if you need a particular title first check here to see if it's been digitized, and then contact the Northeastern library to see if we have access or can locate a local library with access.