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History: Europe

What are primary sources?

Primary sources are first-hand sources created at the time of a particular event or period.

Primary sources can be found online, reproduced in printed books, or in archives of original documents!

Historical Newspapers

Key newspaper resources at Northeastern

Openly available on the web:

Austrian Newspapers Online. Many historical newspapers. Dates vary from 1780 to 1930s.

Compact Memory (1806-1938 Jewish newspapers)

Denmark Illustreret Tidende (1759-1865)

Le Figaro (1830-1942) From Gallica (National Library of France)

Le Gazzette Bolognesi (Italy 1674-1796)

Hamburger Abendblatt (German 1948 - present)

Hemeroteca Digital (Spain. Many newspapers, covering 1772-1933)

Historische Kranten. Dutch newspapers from the 1st half of the 20th century.

Illustrated London News, 1842-2003 Historical archive of the world's first pictorial weekly newspaper. Pages are fully searchable.

Leeuwarder Courant (Dutch 1752-present)

Le Temps (1861-1938) From Gallica (National Library of France)

La Vanguarda (Barcelona, Spain newspaper 1881-present)

Die Zeit Online (German 1946-present)

Europe: Large Primary Source Collections

Anemi: Library of Modern GreeK Studies. (University of Crete)

Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy (Yale University)

British History Online (University of London)

Cold War International History Project (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars)

Compact Memory Jewish Periodicals from 1806-1938.

Det Digitale Nasjonalbiblioteket (Norwegian National Library)

Empire Online

Eurodocs (Brigham Young University)

European History Primary Sources (European University Institute)

Europeana World War I (European Union). Resources on World War I including letters and images

French Political Pamphets (Brigham Young University)

French Revolution Digital Archives (Stanford University and Bibliotheque Nationale de France)

Gallica Digital Library (Bibliotheque Nationale de France)

German History in Documents and Images 1500-present (German Historical Institute)

Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System Online (Harvard University)

L'Histoire par L'Image (Ministere de l'Education Nationale France)

International Historical Statistics  260 years of rich data from around the world.

Kansallisarkiston Digitaaliarkisto (Finnish National Archive)

Labyrinth for Medievel Studies (Georgetown University)

Medici Archive Project (Fondazione Monte die Paschi di Siena)

Memory of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek)

Monumenta Germaniae Historica Digital (Bavarian State Library)

National Digital Library of Poland (Biblioteka Narodowa)

National Library of Finland Digital Collections (National Library of Finland)

Portada de Archivos Espanoles (Official Archives of Spain)

Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatien (Institute of Netherlands History)

WWI Document Archive (Brigham Young University)

Early Modern Britain