Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

History: Europe

What are primary sources?

Primary sources are first-hand sources created at the time of a particular event or period.

Finding archives with sources on your topic:

Primary sources can be found online, reproduced in printed books, or in their original form in archival collections.  To find out which American archives have manuscripts and records on your topic, search ArchiveGrid.  See our ArchiveGrid tutorial.

Search ArchiveGrid

Historical Newspapers

Key European newspapers at Northeastern

Openly available on the web:

Austrian Newspapers Online. Many historical newspapers. Dates vary from 1780 to 1930s

Compact Memory (1806-1938 Jewish newspapers)

Denmark Illustreret Tidende (1759-1865)

International Times (London, 1966-present)

Le Figaro (1830-1942) From Gallica (National Library of France)

Le Gazzette Bolognesi (Italy 1674-1796)

Hamburger Abendblatt (German 1948 - present)

Hemeroteca Digital (Spain. Many newspapers, covering 1772-1933)

Historische Kranten. Dutch newspapers from the 1st half of the 20th century.

Illustrated London News, 1842-2003 Historical archive of the world's first pictorial weekly newspaper. Pages are fully searchable.

Leeuwarder Courant (Dutch 1752-present)

Le Temps(1861-1938) From Gallica (National Library of France)

La Vanguarda (Barcelona, Spain newspaper 1881-present)

Die Zeit Online (German 1946-present)

Europe: Large Primary Source Collections

Early Modern Britain